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Basic format for periodicals:

Lastname, Firstname. "Title of Article: Subtitle of Article." Title of Periodical, vol. #, issue no. #, Publication Date, pages. Database Name*, DOI/URL. Date of Access**.


*Only put the name of the database that an article was found in if it was found in a database. If it was found in print or on the web omit this section.

**You only need to put a date of access if there is not a publication date.

From an academic/scholarly journal:

Overton, Tiffany L., et al. “Distracted Driving: Prevalence, Problems, and Prevention.” International Journal of Injury Control & Safety Promotion, vol. 22, no. 3, Sept. 2015, pp. 187–192. Academic Search Complete, doi:10.1080/17457300.2013.879482.

Smith, Gary, and Margaret Hwang Smith. "Like Mother, Like Daughter? An Economic Comparison of Immigrant Mothers and Their Daughters." International Migration, vol. 51, no. 2, 2013, pp. 181-190.


From a newspaper:

Healy, Melissa. "Opioid Addiction can be Overcome with Mindfulness, Study Suggests." Los Angeles Times, 17 Oct. 2019,

Martin, Naomi. "New Hampshire's Opioid Crisis Looms Over Marijuana Legalization Debate." Boston Globe, 5 Feb. 2019. ProQuest,

Max, Arthur. “Blair Begins Mission as Mideast Envoy.” The Boston Globe, 24 July 2007, p. A3.

From a popular magazine:

Ford, Anne. "It's Not Such a Small World After All: Introducing Older Adults to Virtual Reality." American Libraries, vol. 50, no. 3/4, Mar./Apr. 2019, pp. 22-23.

Gugliotta, Guy. “The Maya: Glory and Ruin.” National Geographic, vol. 212, no. 2, Aug. 2007, pp. 68‐73.

Toensmeier, Eric, and Dennis Garrity. “The Biomass Bottleneck.” Scientific American, vol. 323, no. 2, Aug. 2020, pp. 64-71. Academic Search Complete,

Basic format for a book:

Lastname, Firstname**. Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. Publisher, Year Published.

Everly, George S., Jr., and Jeffrey M. Lating. The Johns Hopkins Guide to Psychological First Aid. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2017.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. Penguin Press, 2006.

Siebert, Lee, et al. Volcanoes of the World. Smithsonian Institution, 2010. 

Basic format for an eBook:

Author or Editor (if given). Title of Book: Subtitle of Book. e-book ed., Publisher, Publication date. Provider/Database/Container, URL (if available).

Bleeker, Maaike, editor. Anatomy Live: Performance and the Operating Theater. e-book ed., Amsterdam University Press, 2008. Ebook Central,

Basic format for a book chapter or work in an anthology:

Author of chapter. "Title of Chapter: Subtitle of Chapter." Title of Book: Subtitle of Book, edited by Firstname Lastname, Publisher, Publication date, pp. x-xx.

Vicioso, Sherezada. “The Caribbean, or the Feminine Face of Multiculturalism.” Daring to Write: Contemporary Narratives by Dominican Women, edited by Erika M. Martinez, University of Georgia Press, 2016, pp. 159-163.

*If there are 2 authors use this format: Lastname 1, Firstname 1, and Firstname 2 Lastname 2 (such as in the Everly example above).

**If there are three or more authors only put the primary author's name and follow it with "et al." (such as in the Siebert example above).

Basic format for web sources:

Author or Editor (if given). "Title of Webpage." Name of Website. Publisher or Sponsor of the website*, Date published or updated, URL/DOI/permalink. Accessed date**.

Central Intelligence Agency. “Central America: Haiti.” The World Factbook, 19 Mar. 2020, the-world-factbook/geos/aa.html.

“The Most Haunted Places in Boston.” Ghosts & Gravestones, Accessed 8 Apr. 2020

Teitell, Beth. "Why We Turn into Different People When We Fly." Boston Globe, 9 July 2019,   why-turn-into-different-people-when-ly/sxf7XYIHGpm0FkfVct L26M/story.html.



Many web sources do not always provide all of the above information (such as an individual author, or a publication date). Check the pages under the "more help" tab, or, ask a librarian!

* If the Publisher is the same as the name of the website, omit it. See the Teitell example above

** You do not need to put a date of access if there is a date of publication on the webpage. If there is not a date of publication or date last updated, do not use the copyright date of the website. Use the date you accessed the webpage/website and place it at the end of your citation after the URL/DOI/Permalink. See "The Most Haunted" example above.

Basic format for Twitter:

@Twitter handle. "Insert the entire tweet here." Twitter, DD Mon. YYYY, Time of the post*, URL of tweet. 
*to find the time of posting hover over the date of the posting itself. 

@BostonGlobe. "Not all potholes are created equal. Some have cost the City of Boston thousands of dollars in payments." Twitter, 2 Apr. 2018, 4:59 a.m., 

Basic format for Facebook:

Author Last Name, First Name or Account Name. Description of Post*. Facebook, DD Mon. YYYY, Time of Post, URL.
*as Facebook posts can be lengthy, simply write your own short description of the post.

The Boston Globe. Eversource talks about ways to cut down on power outages. Facebook, 1 Apr. 2018, 10:15 p.m.,


For more help citing social media using MLA style please check out this page of the Purdue OWL website

Basic format for a webinar:

Lastname, Firstname of presenter. Title of Webinar*. Publisher or organization responsible for the webinar, Date of Webinar, URL (only necessary if watching a recorded webinar). Webinar**.

Gibson, Angela. MLA Style 101. Modern Language Association, 22 Aug. 2017. Webinar.

Gibson, Angela. MLA Style 101. Modern Language Association, 30 Aug. 2017,


*Note that the title of the webinar is styled without quotation marks or italics.

**It is optional to add the word "Webinar" after the date of a live webinar, or the URL of a pre-recorded webinar.

Basic format for PowerPoint presentations:

Lastname, Firstname. Title of PresentationName of Learning Management System, uploaded by Firstname Lastname*, Date uploaded, URL of the Learning Management System. PowerPoint presentation*.

Carson, Sandy. Introduction to Digital Humanities. Blackboard, uploaded by Carson, 20 Oct. 2019, PowerPoint presentation.


*It is optional to add the words "PowerPoint presentation" after the URL of the Learning Management System. 

Basic format for a work of art:

Artist or username. Title. Date the image was created. Medium. Museum, City. Database name or title of site,  URL. Date of access.


Chagall, Marc. Village Street. 1930s. Oil on canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Museum of Fine Arts, Accessed 1 Oct. 2014.


An example from a database:

Chagall, Marc.The Yellow Room. 1911. Oil on canvas. Private collection. Artstor, Accessed 21 Sept. 2016.


Basic format for video(s):

Title of the video. Directed by Name Lastname, Distributor, Year.

Example of a film:

Demolition Man. Directed by Marco Brambilla, Warner Bros. Pictures, 1993.

Examples of a video uploaded on YouTube:

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,


 "Kingston's Warning to the Jericho Appreciation Society is Heard Loud & Clear. AEW Dynamite, 4/27/22." YouTube, uploaded by All Elite Wrestling, 28 April 2022,

Example of a television episode on a streaming service:

"Eighteen Years Lost". Making a Murderer, season 1, episode 1, Synthesis Films, 2015. Netflix


Here are some other resources that you may find helpful in learning how to appropriately cite materials using the 9th edition of the Modern Language Association Handbook​. 

If you need more assistance, please ask a librarian.

. Umpqua Community College Library, 1140 Umpqua College Rd., Roseburg, OR 97470, 541-440-4640
Except where otherwise noted, content in these research guides is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.