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What are Footnotes

Footnotes are short numbered notes that are placed at the bottom of the page in an essay or article. They are used for a variety of reasons including, citing materials, providing notes on a source or topic, and to acknowledge copyright status.

Although you will find footnotes in many journal articles, they are not typically required in APA or MLA formatted essays. 

APA: For information on hanging indents in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association see section 2.12, "Reference List."

MLA: For information on hanging indents in The MLA Handbook see section 1.6, "Placement of the List of Works Cited."

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