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APA Citation Format


We're here to help you with your research! Feel free to stop by, email, call, or make an appointment with any questions about finding sources, citing them in APA format, or summarizing what you learned for your presentations. We're here for you!


Jennifer Lantrip, Research & Instruction Librarian


In-Class Activity with the Librarian

  1. Create a Google Slides presentation. 
  2. Add a References page. 
  3. Add a References page citation for the Fundamentals of Rosgen Stream Classification System web page.
  4. Add a page entitled Stream Classification Systems
  5. Paraphrase (use your own words) to explain why we assign streams a standard classification and include an in-text citation in APA format from what you learned from the Fundamentals of Rosgen Stream Classification System web page.
  6. Find an academic article with an example of the Rosgen Stream Classification System in use in management and/or conservation of water resources and/or aquatic ecosystems. 
  7. Add a References page citation for this article to your References page. 
  8. Write 2-3 sentences summarizing the example from the article and include an in-text citation in APA format.

Resources for Your Stream Classification Presentation

Most Widely Used Stream Classification System

Stream Ordering System

Academic Articles 

Is this a credible source?

Evaluate Your Sources -- Library Research Tutorial: Is the source that you found relevant and credible for your topic?

Sources for Data Collection and Analysis: 

  • For this assignment, you'll be learning about the Rosgen Stream Classification System and the Stream Ordering System used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since these are what you would be using on the job. You will need to learn about these systems from the EPA's website so that you can utilize them when gathering your data and analyzing it. Ensuring that you found sources that are relevant and credible for this part of the assignment is fairly straight-forward. Have you found the most current web pages from the EPA that contains information about these two systems? 

Sources to "explain why we assign streams a standard classification using examples from management and/or conservation of water resources and/or aquatic ecosystems":

  • For this part of the assignment, you'll be looking for academic articles (a.k.a.,scholarly or peer-reviewed articles).
    • Is the article current? When was it published?
    • Is it relevant? Does it provide examples of the Rosgen Stream Classification System in use?
    • What journal was it published in? Is it peer-reviewed (reviewed by other experts in the field before publication)?
    • Who funded the research? Are there any conflicts of interest? 
    • What is the author(s)? credentials/expertise? 
    • Based upon what you know about research methods on this topic, does it appear that the author(s) has done quality reseserch and has drawn logical conclusions? 

Using Images Legally in Your Presentation

It's best not to use copyrighted images in your presentations because you count on someone asking you to share your presentation with them by email, the Web, or another method of publication. Unless you know that an image is in the public domain ir has a Creative Commons license, you can assume that it is under copyright. You would need to first ask the creator of the copyrighted image for permission. Thus, it is easier to find images that are in the public domain or are licensed for you to use them with Creative Commons licenses. 

How to find images that are "labeled for reuse" on Google Image Search:

  1. Do a Google search
  2. Click Images
  3. Click Tools 
  4. Click Labeled for Reuse under Usage Rights

Google Image Search , Click Tools, Click Labeled for Reuse under Usage Rights

When you go to the image, check to see what the usage rights are. For example, whether it is in the public domain or whether it is licensed by a Creative Commons license. Make sure to follow the the instructions for providing attribution and anything else required by the license. For example, here are the terms for the CC BY Attribution 4.0 International License

Create Your Presentation for Your Audience

  • Tailor your presentation for your audience.
    • What do they know about the topic?
    • How could you present the material clearly and concisely so that they would understand it? 
    • What visuals would help them understand your message?
    • Explain the credibility and relevancy of the sources that you used so that they understand that your conclusions are based upon quality research.
  • Put your audience at ease by being relaxed and positive about your presentation. People learn better when they feel relaxed and are in a good mood. 
  • Make sure that you feel like you understand your topic well. Look up any vocabulary that you don't understand, do background reading about your topic, and ask your instructor (or knowledgeable/trustworthy colleagues if on the job) any questions that you have. This will help you to answer any questions that your audience has about your presentation. 
  • Take pride in your work! Your work effects your organization and your community and you should be proud of the excellent work that you do. 
  • Be open for feedback so that you can improve. View this as positive and make sure to give and receive constructive feedback. 

To cite this LibGuide using APA: Umpqua Community College Library. (Date updated). Title of page. Title of LibGuide. URL

To cite this LibGuide using MLA: Umpqua Community College Library. "Title of Page." Title of LibGuide, Date updated, URL

. Umpqua Community College Library, 1140 Umpqua College Rd., Roseburg, OR 97470, 541-440-4640
Except where otherwise noted, content in these research guides is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons Attribution License